Sociology is the systematic and scientific study of the society and its components. Sociologists study society combining both theoretical and practical methods. Sociology is the detailed analysis of society based on its different components, which are as follows:
a) Social Component – which constituted by family, education, politics and economy. These components are further classified as follows:
1. Family – marriage, kinship, nuclear family, extended family
2. Economy – marketing, investment, savings, ownership
3. Politics – leadership, parties, election
b) Cultural Component – which is constituted by language, religion, norms, values, habits, arts, tradition etc.
c) Physical Component – which includes the climate, environment, resources etc.
d) Demographic Component – which includes the size of population, characteristics of the population, distribution of population, the trends of the birth and death rates in the society, age, structure etc.
Today is an age of computers. There is no field left that has not been affected by the invention of computers. It used in practically in every field and aspect of human life. Computers was perhaps first introduced during the world war 2 when it was used to locate the exact location of the enemies and also to know where exactly to hit. Since then computers have found a widespread use in every aspect of life be it schools, offices, politics or anything else. Even the common man’s household has a personal computer to aid him in his daily life.
The affects computers have had on the society are very vast and diverse, in the sense that there are some advantages and a few disadvantages. The following points will highlight a few of the advantages:
1. In the olden days, there was only the letter system to communicate with people living far off. But now that is not the case. With the advent of the Internet it has become easier for people to communicate with each other quickly and efficiently. Now we can reach places that were before completely remote from the rest of the society.
2. Before if we wanted to gather information about anything for e.g. a person or a place we had to look through books or do strenuous field studies. However, now it has become much easier since any kind of information about anything is just a click away. All kinds of information about anything can be found online.
3. The use of computers has increased the technical efficiency in the business and non-profit making organizations. The work is done faster with the help of fax machines, electronic- mails, and computerized business transactions.
4. Through computers it has become easier for handicapped people to work because of the technology of telecommuting, which helps them to work from home itself.
5. The standard of education and the standard of living of the people have increased.
6. Now people don’t need to go to shops to buy their basic needs since with the help of online shopping they can place their orders sitting at home and with help of electronic shipping the goods are brought to their doorstep. They can also make online bookings in airlines if they wish to travel to any place. And also check their bank accounts, deposit or withdraw money from their bank accounts.
7. All the criminal and civil records can be found online. Therefore, information about any person can be found without any difficulty.
8. Today for any job the basic knowledge of computers is needed to make the person eligible for the job.
9. Computers develop the countries and give it prosperity. It also makes its economy a boost.
10. Computers also have a large contribution to the medical field which include the computerized eye-testing, laser treatment for various ailments, amniocentesis etc.
11. Computers have also helped the aviation industry by the invention of the Global Positioning System, which helps you to locate your current location anywhere in the world.
12. Computers have also helped the aviation industry by the invention of the Global Positioning System, which helps you to locate your current location anywhere in the world.
13. Before the paychecks of employees used to be handed to them in cash or in bank drafts. But now at the end of every month the salary is just deposited into the employees account or into the common company from where the employee collects it at the required time.
14. Before it was necessary that we pay cash in shops after buying something. But now we can pay in credit cards and saves us from the trouble of carrying around lots of money.
Though the boons are many there some side effects on the society due to the invention of computers. Now the society is more into their own lives, their own problems. The feeling of togetherness and the spirit of working with each other, which was there during the age of paper and pencil, does not seem to exist anymore. A few of them are highlighted below:
1. Before children used to spend their free time either playing with their friends or reading books or talking to their family about their day but now they are always in front of their computers.
2. Because of computers the face-to-face interaction between people has reduced considerably.
3. The importance given to the cultural values has considerably reduced.
4. Since computers are more efficient the number of people appointed for a particular job has reduced which has led to problems of unemployment.
5. Though the fact that information is available about anyone can be a plus- point, it can also be a defect since this allows anyone to access unauthorized information, which can lead to many complications.
Thus the paragraphs above prove that computers and the technology that goes with it have affected the society in a very strong way. So much so that, the whole structure of the society has changed. If it were not for the computers human advancement in various fields was almost impossible.