Socialization refers to the ways in which people learn to conform to their society??s norms, values, and roles. Primary socialization consists of the ways in which the newborn individual is molded into a person who can interact with others according to the expectations of society. Secondary socialization occurs in childhood and adolescence, primarily through schooling, and adult socialization refers to the ways in which a person learns the norms associated with new statuses. Among the most basic questions in the study of socialization is that of nature versus nurture to what extent does the development of the person depend on genetic factors, and to what extent does it depend on learning? In my opinion, I think the personality comes from nurture, because it is easy to find criminals in family with problem. The first social scientist to develop a theory that addressed this issue was Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that the personality develops out of the processes of socialization through which the infant is gradually forced to control its biological urges. He divided the personality into three functional areas: the id, from which unsocialized drives arise; the superego, which incorporates the moral codes of elders; and the ego, or one??s conception of oneself in relation to others.
In the growth of the personality, the formation of the ego or social self is critical. According to Freud, this takes place in a series of stages in which conflict between the demands of the superego and those of the id is always threatening to disrupt the functioning of the ego. Behaviorism asserts that all behavior is learned. It originated in the work of Ivan Pavlov, who showed that behavior that was thought to be instinctual could in fact be shaped or conditioned by learning situations. This line of research was continued by John B. Watson, whose experiments revealed the ability of conditioning to shape behavior in almost any direction. Studies of feral children, who have experienced extreme isolation or have been reared outside human society, show that such children are able to learn but that they do so far more slowly than children who have not been isolated in early childhood. Other studies have found that normal development requires not only the presence of other humans but also the attention and love of adults. Children raised in orphanages and other nonfamily settings are more likely to develop emotional problems and to be retarded in their language development than comparable children reared by their parents. In my opinion, nurture decides a social being. So it is important that support children to have good environment and give a love to them.
Interactionist models of socialization stress the development of the social self through interaction with others. One of the earliest interactionist theories was Charles Horton Cooley??s concept of the looking glass self, the reflection of our self that we think we see in the behaviors of other people toward us. This concept was carried further by George Herbert Mead, who emphasized the important of culture in the formation of the self. Mead believed that when children play, they practice role taking, or trying to look at social situations from the standpoint of another person. This ability developed through three stages. During the preparatory stage, children mimic the behavior of the significant others in their social environment. During the play stage, they play at being others who are significant in their lives. During the game stage, they develop the ability to take the role of the generalized other-that is, to shape their participation according to the roles of other participants. In playing the roles for which they have been socialized, people adhere to rules of interaction known as face work. They seek to present a positive image of themselves, their face, and to avoid being embarrassed or losing face. Lawrence Kohlberg proposed a three-stage sequence of moral development in which the child??s moral reasoning evolves from emphasis on reward and punishment to ability to distinguish between social laws and moral principles. Other sociologists, especially Carol Gilligan, have challenged Kohlberg??s theory on the ground that it does not distinguish between moral reasoning based on rules and justice (most common in males) and moral reasoning based on fairness and cooperation (most common in females). In class, we watched the video about children playing game. They learned the rule through the game and they use it in social life and develop their selves.
Studies of the environments in which socialization occurs have found that normal development requires the involvement of one or more adults in the care of the child, as well as public policies that promote such involvement. Agencies of socialization are the groups of people, along with the interactions that occur within those groups that influence a person??s social development. Within all agencies of socialization one finds a great deal of anticipatory socialization. In which the individual plays at a role that he or she is likely to assume later in life. After the family, the most important agencies of socialization are the schools. Other socializing agencies include day care centers, churches, leagues, and other associations. Religion may be involved in socialization in different ways throughout an individual??s lifetime. The dominant agency of socialization outside the family is the peer group, an interacting group of people of about the same age. Peer groups exert a significant influence on the individual from adolescence on. The mass media, especially television, are another significant agency of socialization in American society.
The roles a person plays over a lifetime are influenced by social change and by changes in the culture of his or her society. Socialization after childhood often occurs as a result of occupational mobility and the influence of significant others. A person??s core identity shapes that individual??s responses to new situations and challenges. Resocialization may occur at any time during adulthood. Sometimes people undergo resocialization to correct patterns of social learning that they and others find detrimental. Erik Erikson focused on identification, the social process whereby the individual chooses adults as role models and attempts to imitate their behavior. In my opinion, school is the most important agency of socialization. In school we learn most of stuff we need to live in society. In family, we develop our personality, and we develop our ability in school.
An important aspect of socialization is gender socialization, or the ways in which we learn our gender identity and develop according to cultural norms of masculinity and femininity. Gender identity is an individual??s own feeling of whether he or shoe is a male or a female.